Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 739-0448
Mfr. Part No.LM336Z25
TWD13.00
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - 2.44 V 2.54 V 3 - 10 mV 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS Stock No. 166-2430
Mfr. Part No.KA431AZTA
TWD1.90
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS Stock No. 739-0300
Mfr. Part No.KA431AZTA
TWD8.10
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm
RS Stock No. 807-8786
Mfr. Part No.KA431AZBU
TWD7.80
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 166-3619
Mfr. Part No.KA431AZBU
TWD1.80
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 807-8789
Mfr. Part No.KA431LZTA
TWD8.40
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±0.5 % Through Hole Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 688-9323
Mfr. Part No.TL431BCDR2G
TWD17.00
Each (In a Pack of 2)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±0.4 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 145-3275
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
TWD3.10
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 145-3880
Mfr. Part No.TL431CDR2G
TWD3.50
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.2 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 122-0101
Mfr. Part No.TL431BCDR2G
TWD5.10
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±0.4 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 463-246
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
TWD10.00
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 166-3530
Mfr. Part No.KA431LZTA
TWD2.10
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Programmable ±0.5 % Through Hole Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 463-498
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-2.5G
TWD16.80
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±3 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.425 V 2.575 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 688-9335
Mfr. Part No.TL431CDR2G
TWD15.00
Each (In a Pack of 2)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Adjustable ±2.2 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 163-2419
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-2.5G
TWD7.70
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±3 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.425 V 2.575 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 146-2125
Mfr. Part No.LM431SCCM32X
TWD2.50
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 805-1337
Mfr. Part No.LM285D-1.2G
TWD19.60
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.235V SOIC Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 146-2126
Mfr. Part No.LM431SBCM32X
TWD2.70
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 463-492
Mfr. Part No.LM285Z-2.5G
TWD19.00
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 2.462 V 2.538 V 3 - 10 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 807-8783
Mfr. Part No.KA431SAMF2TF
TWD8.80
Each (On a Tape of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23F Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - 36 V 3 - - 3 x 1.7 x 1mm