Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 545-0343
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
TWD3.70
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 170-3540
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
TWD0.60
Each (On a Reel of 10000)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2948
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
TWD0.70
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -
RS Stock No. 793-0753
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
TWD1.30
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 803-1119
Mfr. Part No.BC549BTF
TWD2.30
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3111
Mfr. Part No.BC549BTF
TWD1.30
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 803-1100
Mfr. Part No.BC549BTA
TWD2.10
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 166-3653
Mfr. Part No.FJN3303RTA
TWD1.20
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN - 50 V TO-92 Through Hole 300 mW Single - 10 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 169-8613
Mfr. Part No.BC549BTA
TWD1.00
Each (On a Tape of 2000)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 5 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 145-4769
Mfr. Part No.15C01M-TL-E
TWD1.90
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 700 mA 15 V MCP Surface Mount 300 mW Single 20 V 5 V 330 MHz 3 1 2 x 1.25 x 0.9mm -
RS Stock No. 792-4956
Mfr. Part No.15C01M-TL-E
TWD7.10
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 700 mA 15 V MCP Surface Mount 300 mW Single 20 V 5 V 330 MHz 3 1 2 x 1.25 x 0.9mm -
RS Stock No. 169-8612
Mfr. Part No.BC547CBU
TWD1.70
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 803-1096
Mfr. Part No.BC547CBU
TWD2.00
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2964
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
TWD134.30
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 544-9703
Mfr. Part No.MJ15025G
TWD238.00
Each
units
PNP 16 A 250 V TO-204 Through Hole 250 W Single 400 V 5 V 4 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 464-142
Mfr. Part No.MJD44H11G
TWD16.10
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
NPN 8 A 80 V DPAK (TO-252) Surface Mount 1.75 W Single - 5 V 85 MHz 3 1 2.38 x 6.73 x 6.22mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 463-638
Mfr. Part No.MJD44H11T4G
TWD16.50
Each (In a Pack of 20)
units
NPN 8 A 80 V DPAK (TO-252) Surface Mount 1.75 W Single - 5 V 85 MHz 3 1 2.38 x 6.73 x 6.22mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 170-3360
Mfr. Part No.MJD44H11T4G
TWD6.60
Each (On a Reel of 2500)
units
NPN 8 A 80 V DPAK (TO-252) Surface Mount 1.75 W Single - 5 V 85 MHz 3 1 2.38 x 6.73 x 6.22mm -
RS Stock No. 545-2210
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
TWD198.00
Each
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 102-2272
Mfr. Part No.MJD44H11G
TWD15.80
Each (In a Tube of 75)
units
NPN 8 A 80 V DPAK (TO-252) Surface Mount 1.75 W Single - 5 V 85 MHz 3 1 2.38 x 6.73 x 6.22mm -